Computer Networks A Systems Approach 4th Edition By Larry Peterson And Bruce Davie

Computer Networks A Systems Approach Pdf

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Introduction: Computer Networks A Systems Approach Pdf

Computer Networks A Systems Approach Pdf, suppose you want to build a computer network, one that has the potential to grow to global proportions and to support applications as diverse as teleconferencing, video-on-demand, electronic commerce, distributed computing, and digital libraries. What would available technologies serve as the underlying building blocks, and what kind of software architecture would you design to integrate these building blocks into an effective communication service? Answering this question is the overriding goal of this book to describe the available building materials and then to show how they can be used to construct a network from the ground up.
Before we can understand how to design a computer network, we should first agree on exactly what a computer network is. At one time, the term network meant the set of serial lines used to attach dumb terminals to mainframe computers. To some, the term implies the voice telephone network. To others, the only interesting network is the cable network used to disseminate video signals. The main thing these networks have in common is that they are specialized to handle one particular kind of data (keystrokes, voice, or video) and they typically connect to special-purpose devices (terminals, hand receivers, and television sets).
What distinguishes a computer network(Computer Networks A Systems Approach Pdf) from these other types of networks? Probably the most important characteristic of a computer network is its generality. Computer networks are built primarily from general-purpose programmable hardware, and they are not optimized for a particular application like making phone calls or delivering television signals. Instead, they are able to carry many different types of data, and they support a wide, and ever-growing, range of applications. This chapter looks at some typical applications of computer networks and discusses the requirements that a network designer who wishes to support such applications must be aware of.
Once we understand the requirements, how do we proceed? Fortunately, we will not be building the first network. Others, most notably the community of researchers responsible for the Internet, have gone before us. We will use the wealth of experience generated from the Internet to guide our design. This experience is embodied in a network architecture that identifies the available hardware and software components and shows how they can be arranged to form a complete network system.

Computer Networks A Systems Approach 4th Edition chapters and Sections

Table Of Contents For Computer Networks A Systems Approach Pdf

1 Foundation

Problem: Building a Network
Applications
Requirements
Connectivity
Cost-Effective Resource Sharing
Support for Common Services
Network Architecture
Layering and Protocols
OSI Architecture
Internet Architecture
Implementing Network Software
Application Programming Interface (Sockets)
Example Application
Protocol Implementation Issues
Performance
Bandwidth and Latency
Delay × Bandwidth Product
High-Speed Networks
Application Performance Needs
Summary
Open Issue: Ubiquitous Networking
Further Reading
Exercises

2 Direct Link Networks

Problem: Physically Connecting Hosts
Hardware Building Blocks
Nodes
Links
Encoding (NRZ, NRZI, Manchester, 4B/5B)
Framing
Byte-Oriented Protocols (PPP)
Bit-Oriented Protocols (HDLC)
Clock-Based Framing (SONET)
Error Detection
Two-Dimensional Parity
Internet Checksum Algorithm
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Reliable Transmission
Stop-and-Wait
Sliding Window
Concurrent Logical Channels
Ethernet (802.3)
Physical Properties
Access Protocol
Experience with Ethernet
Rings (802.5, FDDI, RPR)
Token Ring Media Access Control
Token Ring Maintenance
FDDI
Resilient Packet Ring (802.17)
Wireless
Bluetooth (802.15.1)
Wi-Fi (802.11)
WiMAX (802.16)
Cell Phone Technologies
Summary
Open Issue: Sensor Networks
Further Reading
Exercises

3 Packet Switching

Problem: Not All Networks Are Directly Connected
Switching and Forwarding
Datagrams
Virtual Circuit Switching
Source Routing
Bridges and LAN Switches
Learning Bridges
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Broadcast and Multicast
Limitations of Bridges
Cell Switching (ATM)
Cells
Segmentation and Reassembly
Virtual Paths
Physical Layers for ATM
Implementation and Performance
Ports
Fabrics
Summary
Open Issue: The Future of Switching
Further Reading
Exercises

4 Internetworking

Problem: There Is More Than One Network
Simple Internetworking (IP)
What Is an Internetwork?
Service Model
Global Addresses
Datagram Forwarding in IP
Address Translation (ARP)
Host Configuration (DHCP)
Error Reporting (ICMP)
Virtual Networks and Tunnels
Routing
Network as a Graph
Distance Vector (RIP)
Link State (OSPF)
Metrics
Routing for Mobile Hosts
Router Implementation
Global Internet
Subnetting
Classless Routing (CIDR)
Interdomain Routing (BGP)
Routing Areas
IP Version 6 (IPv6)
Multicast
Multicast Addresses
Multicast Routing (DVMRP, PIM, MSDP)
Multiprotocol Label Switching
Destination-Based Forwarding
Explicit Routing
Virtual Private Networks and Tunnels
Summary
Open Issue: Deployment of IPv6
Further Reading
Exercises

5 End-to-End Protocols

Problem: Getting Processes to Communicate
Simple Demultiplexer (UDP)
Reliable Byte Stream (TCP)
End-to-End Issues
Segment Format
Connection Establishment and Termination
Sliding Window Revisited
Triggering Transmission
Adaptive Retransmission
Record Boundaries
TCP Extensions
Alternative Design Choices
Remote Procedure Call
RPC Fundamentals
RPC Implementations (SunRPC, DCE)
Transport for Real-Time Applications (RTP)
Requirements
RTP Details
Control Protocol
Performance
Summary
Open Issue: Application-Specific Protocols
Further Reading
Exercises

6 Congestion Control and Resource Allocation

Problem: Allocating Resources
Issues in Resource Allocation
Network Model
Taxonomy
Evaluation Criteria
Queuing Disciplines
FIFO
Fair Queuing
Additive Increase/Multiplicative Decrease
Slow Start
Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery
Congestion-Avoidance Mechanisms
DECbit
Random Early Detection (RED)
Source-Based Congestion Avoidance
Quality of Service
Application Requirements
Integrated Services (RSVP)
Differentiated Services (EF, AF)
Equation-Based Congestion Control
Summary
Open Issue: Inside versus Outside the Network
Further Reading
Exercises

7 End-to-End Data

Problem: What Do We Do with the Data?
Presentation Formatting
Taxonomy
Examples (XDR, ASN.1, NDR)
Markup Languages (XML)
Data Compression
Lossless Compression Algorithms
Image Compression (JPEG)
Video Compression (MPEG)
Transmitting MPEG over a Network
Audio Compression (MP3)
Summary
Open Issue: Computer Networks Meet Consumer Electronics
Further Reading
Exercises

8 Network Security

Problem: Security Attacks
Cryptographic Tools
Principles of Ciphers
Symmetric-Key Ciphers
Public-Key Ciphers
Authenticators
Key Predistribution
Predistribution of Public Keys
Predistribution of Symmetric Keys
Authentication Protocols
Originality and Timeliness Techniques
Public-Key Authentication Protocols
Symmetric-Key Authentication Protocols
Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement
Secure Systems
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Secure Shell (SSH)
Transport Layer Security (TLS, SSL, HTTPS)
IP Security (IPsec)
Wireless Security (802.11i)
Firewalls
Strengths and Weaknesses of Firewalls
Summary
Open Issue: Denial-of-Service Attacks
Further Reading
Exercises

9 Applications

Problem: Applications Need Their Own Protocols
Traditional Applications
Electronic Mail (SMTP, MIME, IMAP)
World Wide Web (HTTP)
Name Service (DNS)
Network Management (SNMP)
Web Services
Custom Application Protocols (WSDL, SOAP)
A Generic Application Protocol (REST)
Multimedia Applications
Session Control and Call Control (SDP, SIP, H.323)
Resource Allocation for Multimedia Applications
Overlay Networks
Routing Overlays
Peer-to-Peer Networks (Gnutella, BitTorrent)
Content Distribution Networks
Summary

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