Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Second Edition By Bernard Sklar

Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf

Download Free Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf

Introduction: Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf

Getting Started With Download Free Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf, The book (Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf) develops these techniques in the context of a unified structure. The structure, in block diagram form, appears at the beginning of each chapter; blocks in the diagram are emphasized, when appropriate, to correspond to the subject of that chapter. Major purposes of the book are to add organization and structure to a field that has grown and continues to grow rapidly and to ensure awareness of the “big picture” even while delving into the details. Signals and key processing steps are traced from the information source through the transmitter, channel, receiver, and ultimately to the information sink. Signal transformations are organized according to nine functional classes: Formatting and source coding, Baseband signaling, Bandpass signaling, Equalization, Channel coding, Multiplexing and multiple access, Spreading, Encryption, and Synchronization. Throughout the book, the emphasis is placed on system goals and the need to trade off basic system parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, the probability of error, and bandwidth expenditure.

Chapter 1 introduces the overall digital communication system and the basic signal transformations that are highlighted in subsequent chapters. Some basic ideas of random variables and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) model are reviewed. Also, the relationship between power spectral density and autocorrelation, and the basics of signal transmission through linear systems are established. Chapter 2 covers the signal processing step, known as formatting, in order to render an information signal compatible with a digital system. Chapter 3 emphasizes baseband signaling, the detection of signals in Gaussian noise, and receiver optimization. Chapter 4 deals with bandpass signaling and its associated modulation and demodulation/detection techniques. Chapter 5 deals with link analysis, an important subject for providing overall system insight; it considers some subtleties that are often missed. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 deal with channel coding—a cost-effective way of providing a variety of system performance trade-offs. Chapter 6 emphasizes linear block codes, Chapter 7 deals with convolutional codes, and Chapter 8 deals with Reed-Solomon codes and concatenated codes such as turbo codes.

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Table Of Contents For Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf

Getting Started With Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications Pdf

1 SIGNALS AND SPECTRA

Digital Communication Signal Processing
Why Digital?
Typical Block Diagram and Transformations
Basic Digital Communication Nomenclature
Digital versus Analog Performance Criteria
Classification of Signals
Deterministic and Random Signals
Periodic and Nonperiodic Signals
Analog and Discrete Signals
Energy and Power Signals
The Unit Impulse Function
Spectral Density
Energy Spectral Density
Power Spectral Density
Autocorrelation
Autocorrelation of an Energy Signal
Autocorrelation of a Periodic (Power) Signal
Random Signals
Random Variables
Random Processes
Time Averaging and Ergodicity
Power Spectral Density of a Random Process
Noise in Communication Systems
Signal Transmission through Linear Systems
Impulse Response
Frequency Transfer Function
Distortionless Transmission
Signals, Circuits, and Spectra
Bandwidth of Digital Data
Baseband versus Bandpass
The Bandwidth Dilemma
Conclusion

2 FORMATTING AND BASEBAND MODULATION

Baseband Systems
Formatting Textual Data (Character Coding)
Messages, Characters, and Symbols
Example of Messages, Characters, and Symbols
Formatting Analog Information,
The Sampling Theorem
Aliasing
Why Oversample?
Signal Interface for a Digital System

3 BASEBAND DEMODULATION/DETECTION

Signals and Noise
Error-Performance Degradation in Communication Systems
Demodulation and Detection
A Vectorial View of Signals and Noise
The Basic SNR Parameter for Digital Communication System
Why Eb/N0 Is a Natural Figure of Merit
Detection of Binary Signals in Gaussian Noise
Maximum Likelihood Receiver Structure
The Matched Filter
Correlation Realization of the Matched Filter
Optimizing Error Performance
Error Probability Performance of Binary Signaling
Intersymbol Interference
Pulse Shaping to Reduce ISI

4 BANDPASS MODULATION AND DEMODULATION/DETECTION

Why Modulate?
Digital Bandpass Modulation Techniques
Phasor Representation of a Sinusoid
Phase Shift Keying
Frequency Shift Keying
Amplitude Shift Keying
Amplitude Phase Keying
Waveform Amplitude Coefficient
Detection of Signals in Gaussian Noise
Decision Regions

5 COMMUNICATIONS LINK ANALYSIS

What the System Link Budget Tells the System Engineer
The Channel
The Concept of Free Space
Error-Performance Degradation
Sources of Signal Loss and Noise
Received Signal Power and Noise Power
The Range Equation
Received Signal Power as a Function of Frequency
Path Loss is Frequency Dependent
Thermal Noise Power
Link Budget Analysis
Two E//NQ Values of Interest
Link Budgets are Typically Calculated in Decibels
How Much Link Margin is Enough?

6 CHANNEL CODING: PART 1

Waveform Coding and Structured Sequences
Antipodal and Orthogonal Signals
M-ary Signaling
Waveform Coding
Waveform-Coding System Example
Types of Error Control
Terminal Connectivity
Automatic Repeat Request
Structured Sequences
Channel Models
Code Rate and Redundancy
Parity Check Codes
Why Use Error-Correction Coding?

7 CHANNEL CODING: PART 2

Convolutional Encoding
Convolutional Encoder Representation
Connection Representation
State Representation and the State Diagram
The Tree Diagram
The Trellis Diagram
Formulation of the Convolutional Decoding Problem
Maximum Likelihood Decoding
Channel Models: Hard versus Soft Decisions
The Viterbi Convolutional Decoding Algorithm
An Example of Viterbi Convolutional Decoding
Decoder Implementation
Path Memory and Synchronization
Properties of Convolutional Codes
Distance Properties of Convolutional Codes
Systematic and Nonsystematic Convolutional Codes
Catastrophic Error Propagation in Convolutional Codes
Performance Bounds for Convolutional Codes
Coding Gain
Best Known Convolutional Codes
Convolutional Code Rate Trade-Off
Soft-Decision Viterbi Decoding
Other Convolutional Decoding Algorithms
Sequential Decoding
Comparisons and Limitations of Viterbi and Sequential Decoding
Feedback Decoding
Conclusion

8 CHANNEL CODING: PART 3

Reed-Solomon Codes,
Reed-Solomon Error Probability
Why R-S Codes Perform Well Against Burst Noise
R-S Performance as a Function of Size, Redundancy, and Code Rate
Finite Fields
Reed-Solomon Encoding,
Reed-Solomon Decoding
Interleaving and Concatenated Codes
Block Interleaving
Convolutional Interleaving
Concatenated Codes
Coding and Interleaving Applied to the Compact Disc Digital Audio System
CIRC Encoding
CIRC Decoding
Interpolation and Muting
Turbo Code Concepts
Log-Likelihood Algebra
Product Code Example
Encoding with Recursive Systematic Codes
A Feedback Decoder
The MAP Decoding Algorithm
MAP Decoding Example
Conclusion
Appendix 8A The Sum of Log-Likelihood Ratios

9 MODULATION AND CODING TRADE-OFFS

Goals of the Communications System Designer
Error Probability Plane
Nyquist Minimum Bandwidth
Shannon-Hartley Capacity Theorem
Shannon Limit
Entropy
Equivocation and Effective Transmission Rate
Bandwidth Efficiency Plane
Bandwidth Efficiency of MPSK and MFSK Modulation
Analogies Between Bandwidth-Efficiency and Error Probability Planes

10 SYNCHRONIZATION

Introduction
Synchronization Defined
Costs versus Benefits
Approach and Assumptions
Receiver Synchronization
Frequency and Phase Synchronization
Symbol Synchronization—Discrete Symbol Modulations
Synchronization with Continuous-Phase Modulations (CPM)
Conclusion

11 MULTIPLEXING AND MULTIPLE ACCESS

Allocation of the Communications Resource
Frequency-Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access
Time-Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access
Communications Resource Channelization
Performance Comparison ofFDMA and TDMA
Code-Division Multiple Access
Space-Division and Polarization-Division Multiple Access
Multiple Access Communications System and Architecture

12 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES

Spread-Spectrum Overview
The Beneficial Attributes of Spread-Spectrum Systems
A Catalog of Spreading Technique
Model for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum
Interference Rejection
Historical Background
Pseudonoise Sequences
Randomness Properties
Shift Register Sequences
PN Autocorrelation Function
Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems
Example of Direct Sequencing
Processing Gain and Performance
Frequency Hopping Systems
Frequency Hopping Example
Robustness
Frequency Hopping with Diversity
Fast Hopping versus Slow Hopping
FFH/MFSK Demodulator

13 SOURCE CODING

Sources
Discrete Sources
Waveform Sources
Amplitude Quantizing
Quantizing Noise
Uniform Quantizing,
Saturation
Dithering
Nonuniform Quantizing
Differential Pulse-Code Modulation
One-Tap Prediction
N-Tap Prediction
Delta Modulation
Sigma-Delta Modulation
Sigma-Delta A-to-D Converter (ADC)
Sigma-Delta D-to-A Converter (DAC)
Adaptive Prediction,
Forward Prediction

14 ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

Models, Goals, and Early Cipher Systems
A Model of the Encryption and Decryption Process
System Goals
Classic Threats
Classic Ciphers
The Secrecy of a Cipher System
Perfect Secrecy
Entropy and Equivocation
Rate of a Language and Redundancy
Unicity Distance and Ideal Secrecy
Practical Security
Confusion and Diffusion

15 FADING CHANNELS

The Challenge of Communicating over Fading Channels
Characterizing Mobile-Radio Propagation
Large-Scale Fading
Small-Scale Fading
Signal Time-Spreading
Signal Time-Spreading Viewed in the Time-Delay Domain
Signal Time-Spreading Viewed in the Frequency Domain
Examples of Flat Fading and Frequency-Selective Fading
Time Variance of the Channel Caused by Motion
Time Variance Viewed in the Time Domain
Time Variance Viewed in the Doppler-Shift Domain
Performance over a Slow-and Flat-Fading Rayleigh Channel
Mitigating the Degradation Effects of Fading
Mitigation to Combat Frequency-Selective Distortion
Mitigation to Combat Fast-Fading Distortion
Mitigation to Combat Loss in SNR
Diversity Techniques
Modulation Types for Fading Channels

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