Download Free Linear Systems and Signals Pdf, Second Edition By B. P. Lathi
Introduction: Linear Systems and Signals pdf
Download Free Linear Systems and Signals Pdf, Complex numbers are an extension of ordinary numbers and are an integral part of the modern number system. Complex numbers, particularly imaginary numbers, sometimes seem mysterious and unreal. This feeling of unreality derives from their unfamiliarity and novelty rather than their supposed nonexistence! Mathematicians blundered in calling these numbers “imaginary,” for the term immediately prejudices perception. Had these numbers been called by some other name, they would have become demystified long ago, just as irrational numbers or negative numbers were. Many futile attempts have been made to describe some physical meaning to imaginary numbers. However, this effort is needless. In mathematics, we assign symbols and operations any meaning we wish as long as internal consistency is maintained. The history of mathematics is full of entities that were unfamiliar and held in abhorrence until familiarity made them acceptable. This fact will become clear from the following historical note.
A Historical Note
Among early people, the number system consisted only of natural numbers (positive integers) needed to express the number of children, cattle, and quivers of arrows. These people had no need for fractions. Whoever heard of two and one-half children or three and one-fourth cows! However, with the advent of agriculture, people needed to measure continuously varying quantities, such as the length of a field and the weight of a quantity of butter. The number system, therefore, was extended to include fractions. The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians knew how to handle fractions, but Pythagoras discovered that some numbers (like the diagonal of a unit square) could not be expressed as a whole number or a fraction. Pythagoras, a number mystic, who regarded numbers as the essence and principle of all things in the universe, was so appalled at his discovery that he swore his followers to secrecy and imposed a death penalty for divulging this secret.
These numbers, however, were included in the number system by the time of Descartes, and they are now known as irrational numbers.
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Table Of Contents For Linear Systems and Signals pdf
The book(Linear Systems and Signals pdf) may be conceived as divided into five parts:
1. Introduction (Background and Chapter 1).
2. Time-domain analysis of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems (Chapters 2 and 3).
3. Frequency-domain (transform) analysis of LTI systems (Chapters 4 and 5).
4. Signal analysis (Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9).
5. State-space analysis of LTI systems (Chapter 10).