Managing Software Requirements Gathering Software Dean Leffingwell Don Widrig

Requirements Gathering Software

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Introduction: Requirements Gathering Software

Getting Started With Requirements Gathering Software, It Doesn’t Seem Like It Should Be This Hard Sit down with the customer. Figure out what the customer wants the system to do. Use cool new software languages and tools that didn’t even exist two years ago. Craft the application, using the latest languages and tools. Simulate and debug with efficiency and aplomb. Download the new client application remotely. Sit back and wait for awards to come in. Take the entire holiday off.

Watch for that bonus check! Reality Seems Entirely Different, However, for most of us, much of the time, reality seems entirely different. Our lives are dominated by late nights, changing requirements, fickle customers, serious software quality issues, a technology that obsolesces before we deploy it for the first time, significant project delays, and missed commitments. In the best cases, our customers are thrilled and we are well rewarded. But even then, it comes at a personal cost and we know we could have done better. In the worst cases, we encounter concealed projects and complete frustration. Bring on the next project! Goodness gracious, we love this business!

Background of (Requirements Gathering Software)
Chapter 1 introduces the concept of requirements management and also summarizes some of the ongoing challenges and problems associated with software development and the causes of project successes and failures. The chapter also provides a rationale for investing time and resources in doing a better job of managing application requirements. If you’re a veteran software the developer, a veteran project manager, or any other kind of software veteran with lots of scars from complex projects gone awry, you may be tempted to skip this discussion and turn directly to Chapter 2.
But if you are new to the industry or spend most of your time outside the software development department of your company. if you’re in the marketing department, perhaps, and you’re charged with defining a new software product or if you’re the quality assurance department chartered to acquire an ISO 9000 accreditation for the entire company, or if you’re in a “user department” that needs to have information systems developed to support its activities—you should read Chapter 1, as well as the rest of the book (Managing Software Requirements)!

Managing Software Requirements Chapters and Sections

Table of Contents For Requirements Gathering Software

PART I: Introduction
Chapter 1. The Requirements Problem

The Goal: Requirements Gathering Software
A Look at the Data
Root Causes of Project Success and Failure

2. Introduction to Requirements Management

Application of Requirements Management Techniques
The Road Map

3. The Software Team

Software Development as a Team Activity
The Case Study

II: Team Skill 1: Analyzing the Problem
4. The Five Steps in Problem Analysis

Step 1: Gain Agreement on the Problem Definition
Step 2: Understand the Root Causes—The Problem Behind the Problem
Step 3: Identify the Stakeholders and the Users
Step 4: Define the Solution System Boundary
Step 5: Identify the Constraints to Be Imposed on the Solution
Looking Ahead

5. Business Modeling

Purpose of Business Modeling
Using Software Engineering Techniques for Business Modeling
From the Business Models to the Systems Model
When to Use Business Modeling
Looking Ahead

6. Systems Engineering of Software-Intensive Systems

What Is Systems Engineering?
Requirements Allocation in Systems Engineering
The Case Study
Team Skill 1 Summary

III: Team Skill 2: Understanding User Needs
7. The Challenge of Requirements Elicitation
Barriers to Elicitation

Techniques for Requirements Elicitation: Requirements Gathering Software

8. The Features of a Product or System
Stakeholder and User Needs

9. Interviewing

The Interview Context
Value-Added Context
The Moment of Truth: The Interview
Compiling the Need Data
A Note on Questionnaires

10. Requirements Workshops

Accelerating the Decision Process
Preparing for the Workshop
Role of the Facilitator
Setting the Agenda
Running the Workshop

11. Brainstorming and Idea Reduction

Live Brainstorming
Idea Reduction
Web-Based Brainstorming
The Case Study: The HOLIS 2000 Requirements Workshop

12. Storyboarding

Types of Storyboards
What Storyboards Do
Tools and Techniques for Storyboarding
Tips for Storyboarding

13. Applying Use Cases

Building the Use-Case Model
Applying Use Cases to Requirements Elicitation
Case Study: The Use Cases for HOLIS

14. Role Playing

How to Role Play
Techniques Similar to Role Playing

15. Prototyping

Types of Prototypes
Requirements Prototypes
What to Prototype
Building the Prototype
Evaluating the Results
Team Skill 2 Summary

IV: Team Skill 3: Defining the System
16. Organizing Requirements Information

Organizing Requirements for Complex Hardware and Software Systems
Organizing Requirements for Product Families
On “Future” Requirements
Business and Marketing Requirements versus Product Requirements
The Case Study

17. The Vision Document

Components of the Vision Document
The “Delta Vision” Document

18. The Champion

The Role of the Product Champion
The Product Champion in a Software Product Environment
The Product Champion in an IS/IT Shop
Team Skill 3 Summary

V: Team Skill 4: Managing Scope
19. The Problem of Project Scope

Components of Project Scope
The Hard Question

20. Establishing Project Scope

The Requirements Baseline
Setting Priorities
Assessing Effort
Adding the Risk Element
Reducing Scope
The Case Study

21. Managing Your Customer

Engaging Customers to Manage Their Project Scope
Communicating the Result
Negotiating with the Customer
Managing the Baseline

22. Scope Management and Software Development Process Models

The Waterfall Model
The Spiral Model
The Iterative Approach
What to Do, What to Do …
Team Skill 4 Summary

VI: Team Skill 5: Refining the System Definition
23. Software Requirements

Definition of Software Requirements
Relationship between Features and Software Requirements
The Requirements Dilemma: What versus How
More on Requirements versus Design
A Further Characterization of Requirements
Using Parent-Child Requirements to Increase Specificity
Looking Ahead

24. Refining the Use Cases

Questions to Ask
Refining Use-Case Specifications
The Case Study: Anatomy of a Simple Use Case
Looking Ahead

25. A Modern Software Requirements Specification

The Modern SRS Package
Documenting Functional Requirements
Looking Ahead

26. On Ambiguity and Specificity

Finding the “Sweet Spot”
Mary Had a Little Lamb
Techniques for Disambiguation
What to Do?

27. Quality Measures of Software Requirements

Nine Quality Measures
Quality Measures for the Use-Case Model
Quality Measures of the Modern SRS Package

28. Technical Methods for Specifying Requirements

Finite State Machines
Decision Trees and Decision Tables
Graphical Decision Trees
Activity Diagrams
Entity-Relationship Models
Object-Oriented Modeling
Data Flow Diagrams
Maintenance of Specifications
Case Study
Team Skill 5 Summary

VII: Team Skill 6: Building the Right System
29. Building the Right System Right: Overview

Continually Confirm that the Development Is on Track
Confirm that the Development Results Are Correct
Learn How to Cope with Change that Occurs during the Development Process
Looking Ahead

30. From Requirements to Implementation

Mapping Requirements to Design and Code
Realizing Use Cases in the Design Model
From Design to Implementation
Looking Ahead

31. Using Traceability to Support Verification

The Role of Traceability in Requirements Verification
Using Traceability Tools
Proceeding without Traceability Tools
Thinking about Verification and Traceability
Looking Ahead

32. Validating the System

Case Study: Testing Use Cases
Testing Discrete Requirements
Testing Design Constraints
Looking Ahead

33. Using ROI to Determine the V&V Effort

Depth versus Coverage
What to Verify and Validate
Looking Ahead

34. Managing Change

Why Do Requirements Change?
“We Have Met the Enemy, and They Is Us”
A Process for Managing Change
Requirements Configuration Management
Team Skill 6 Summary

35. Getting Started

What We’ve Learned So Far
Your Prescription for Requirements Management
Now, On to the Next Release!

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